Special styles of clothing in Poland have developed with each passing century. In the 1600s, nobles and high-class magnates developed a strong sympathy for Orientalism, which was also common in other parts of Europe and became known as sarmatism.  Clothing and outfits mediated between the Western and Ottoman styles included a Żupan, Delia, Kontusz, Pas, decorative karabela swords, and rare turbans brought by foreign traders. The period of Polish sarmatism finally faded during the 18th century. Poland made the fourth largest troop contribution to Europe[f] and its troops served both the Polish government-in-exile in the West and the Soviet leadership in the East. Polish troops played an important role in the Normandy, Italian and North African campaigns and are particularly known for the Battle of Monte Cassino.   In the East, the Soviet-backed Polish 1st Army distinguished itself in the battles of Warsaw and Berlin.  The aviation and maritime transport markets in Poland are largely well developed. Poland has a number of international airports, the largest of which is Warsaw Chopin Airport, the main global hub of LOT Polish Airlines. It was founded in 1929 from the merger of Aerolloyd (1922) and Aero (1925). Other important airports with international connections are John Paul II International Airport in Krakow-Balice, Wroclaw Copernicus Airport and Lech Wałęsa Airport in Gdańsk.
Poland has begun preparations for a construction that will handle 100 million passengers at the central communication port. Poland`s warmest region is Lower Silesia in the southwest of the country, where average temperatures range from 24 to 32°C (75 and 90°F) in the summer, but can rise as high as 34 to 39°C (93.2 to 102.2°F) on some days in the warmer months of July and August. The hottest cities in Poland are Tarnów in Lesser Poland and Wrocław in Lower Silesia. Average temperatures in Wroclaw are 20°C (68°F) in summer and 0°C (32.0°F) in winter, but Tarnów has the longest summer in all of Poland, lasting 115 days, from mid-May to mid-September. The coldest region of Poland is located in the northeast, around the Suwałki region in Podlaskie Voivodeship, where the climate is influenced by the cold fronts of Scandinavia and Siberia. The average winter temperature in Podlaskie ranges from -6 to -4 °C (21 to 25 °F). The greatest effects of the oceanic climate are observed in Świnoujście and in the coastal area of the Baltic Sea, from the police to Słupsk.  The framework for primary and secondary education in present-day Poland is established by the Ministry of National Education. Kindergarten attendance is optional for children aged three to five, and one year is compulsory for children aged six.   Primary education traditionally begins at the age of seven, although six-year-olds can participate at the request of their parents or guardians.  Primary school consists of eight classes, after which a mandatory three-part examination in Polish, mathematics and foreign language must be taken.
 Secondary education depends on the preference of the pupils – either a four-year high school (Liceum), a five-year technical school (technikum) or various vocational studies (szkoła branżowa) can be followed by each pupil.  A study permit or technical college is supplemented by a bachelor`s exam (Matura), which must be passed in order to apply for a university or other colleges.  Poland has a number of major media outlets, most of which do not include national television channels […].