Masanobu Fukuoka

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Masanobu Fukuoka (福岡 正信 Fukuoka Masanobu, Fukuoka Shōshin[† 1]?) (2 February 1913 – 16 August 2008) lived in Japan, living the lifestyle of a Japanese farmer within nature and a natural–philosopher, actively and widely communicating his practical realisations. His many specific activities included educator (先生 sensei?), writer, naturalist, calligraphy–drawings–poetry–art creator, researcher, speaker across Europe, USA and Asia, leader of re-vegetation of desertified lands in Europe, USA, Asia & Africa, professional biological scientist early in working life, and more. In general, polymath.

My ultimate dream is to sow seeds in the desert. To revegetate the deserts is to sow seed in people’s hearts.The greening of the desert means sowing seeds in people’s hearts and creating a green paradise of peace on earth.
—Masanobu Fukuoka, 1984 自然に還る English translation 1987 The Road Back to Nature -page 360
1992 わら一本の革命・総括編「神と自然と人の革命」 English translation 1996 The Ultimatum of God Nature•The One-Straw Revolution•A Recapitulation -page 203[r 1]
…The ultimate goal of farming is not the growing of crops, but the cultivation and perfection of human beings.
—Masanobu Fukuoka, 1975 自然農法-わら一本の革命 English translation 1978 The One-Straw Revolution -page 119[† 2]

These quotations of his ultimate dream and goal, philosophical or spiritual kinds of goal, in other words meta-physical kinds, not only physical nor material kinds of goal, distinguishes his practise as ultimately “Green…Oriental natural philosophy”, and distinguishes him as an “Oriental natural” philosopher–farmer, instead of as only a commercial or materialist farmer.

Founder of no-till no-herbicide grain cultivation in contemporary terms[citation needed] in parallel with various individuals worldwide, and in continuity with traditions of many peoples’ societies around our Earth continuing to advance ancient no-till nature farming practises-cultures, including for example many indigenous peoples’[1], Chinese peoples’, Indian peoples’ and Japanese peoples’ continuity since ancient times. More generally his systems, commonly in English get referred to as “The Natural Way of Farming” or Natural FarmingDo Nothing Farming, ‘Fukuoka Farming’, or the ‘Fukuoka Method’.

Creator in Japanese, of more than ten books, of scientific papers, essays, poetry, lectures, television documentaries and interviews, patents and Iroha song-verses[2]. Published scientific papers at least as early as 1937, books at least as early as one self-published in 1947, and the apparent next book, better known in 1958. Television documentaries and interviews on NHK (Japan’s national public broadcaster) as early as 1976[3] or earlier, and 13 or more programs recorded from 1976 onwards[4]. Of his Japanese books five at least, have published translations to English. Of his Japanese books having a translation to English, three at least, of those and some more of his books not yet translated to English, have some translations to languages including: GreekThai, several Indian-subcontinent languages:Malayalam Marathi Gujarati Telugu Bengali Hindi Tamil KannadaFrenchItalianGermanSpanishCatalan, Philippines-Tagalog,ChineseSerbianCroatianTurkishKoreanEstonianRussian, etc.

Contents

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Life

Trained as a microbiologist and agricultural scientist by some of the most renowned biological research scientists in Japan then. He began his career as a research scientist specialising in plant pathology. In 1937 at about “age 25”: “In an instant I had become a different person “[† 3]; experiencing liberation from impediments to reaching enlightenment[† 4][r 2] and then therefore profound doubt of modern ‘Western’agricultural-science. Immediately, the next day, he resigned from his research scientist and plant quarantine job; Returning to his family’s farm in the island of Shikoku in southern Japan in 1938 to demonstrate his enlightenment experience in practise by its implementation in his family’s farm, initially with some of his father’s organic citrus orchard. From 1937 consciously devoting the rest of his life to expressing hisenlightenment experience, including his, at once practical and philosophical natural way of farming[r 3][5][6][7] in 1938 initiating doing “shizen nōhō (自然農法?nature farming”. In liberated awareness practises such as his, at once: tangible practical working activities –actions–, varying methods, empirical observations, subjects, objects, hypotheses, theories, religions, spiritualities, profound philosophies and so on – do not separate, don’t separately–exist from each other, except as fragments of reality–awareness–nature[r 3][5][7][8]; All occur indivisible, inseparable in nature – reality, including at once human-nature and the nature of the Earth and universe, at once physically and spiritually,metaphysically[r 3][5][7][8] – in Japanese shin do fu ji (身土不二?, “Body and Earth are not two”[9], literally: 身 body, 土 earth, 不 not, 二 two). In 1947 he further defined, wrote-up in papers and his first book, established, and “wholeheartedly devoted himself” to shizen nōhō (自然農法?Nature Farming (—a nearer–to–correct translation to English from his Japanese 自然農法[10][r 4][† 5]); Also deftly titled natural, “do-nothing“, Wú wéi“no-action” or ‘not doing’ farming.

Masanobu Fukuoka defined nature farming systems’ practises according to required inseparable principles[† 6][† 7] based on evidence, disproving ‘Western’ agricultural science conventions:

More widely around our Earth he devoted his life to expressing his enlightenment experience and doing nature farming by reseeding ecosystems into areas of man-made deserts, and teaching thousands of people including farmers and children in many places, in India, U.S.A., Nepal, Africa including: Somalia Tanzania Kenya, Greece, France, Thailand, Philippines, Vietnam, Italy, Austria, Holland, Germany, Switzerland, Spain, China, Afghanistan, and so on.[r 2][r 11][11][12][13][14][15][16]

The timing and circumstances of his going beyond modern ‘Western’ agricultural science, parallels the new movements, in Japan from 1935 to “Fertilizer-free Agriculture” –no fertilizers, no pesticides and no animal manures– by leader Mokichi Okada, changed-in-name tonature farming in 1950[r 4], and in the 1940s in Europe and the USA to organic farming and gardening, by leaders like Albert HowardEve BalfourJ.I. Rodale and Ruth Stout.

He distinctively defines nature farming from organic farming or ‘permaculture‘ by his practises according to required inseparable principles(detailed above)[† 6][† 7]; These, his required inseparable principles in turn stem from at their “core” from following “the road back to nature, bearing in mind an Oriental natural philosophy” mu (無?)[17] and mui (無為?)[18][19] (simplified Chinese无为traditional Chinese無爲;pinyinWú wéi), described in his English translation below:

The Ultimatum of God Nature The One-Straw Revolution A Recapitulation

PART 2 THE ROAD TO NATURAL FARMING [page 197]

D. From Organic Farming to Natural Farming [page 205]

In the future, American agriculture will probably grow even larger on business capital, but on the other hand, people who are inclined to using natural methods will probably progress from organic to natural farming.

The problem, however, is that the distinction between organic and natural farming is still not generally understood. Of course, scientific farming and organic farming are not that different, and fundamentally both can be called scientific. Consequently, the boundary between them is unclear.

The major objective of the international conference I attended on this [1986] visit to the U.S. was to assess the current world situation and to determine in which direction to move in the future. In more concrete terms, the goal was to examine how various farming methods now being practised, such as permaculture, organic farming, and other methods based on new ideas, relate to each other and to what extent they can act in concert.

I may just be feathering my own nest, but as far as I can see, the only way is to follow the road back to nature, bearing in mind an Oriental natural philosophy. I believe that in doing this, we will establish techniques that go beyond our present technology. Although this philosophy still takes various forms and names, it is clear that the thought underlying it is my “Green Philosophy” as I described it in The One-Straw Revolution.

It is fine to turn gradually from organic farming onto the road that leads to anti-scientific farming. It is fine to set our sights on farming that perpetuates itself infinitely and on a return to nature, even while enjoying life on a designed farm. But these must not end up as microscopic techniques and should not be used as temporary fads. Even though we have these at our command, at the core there must be a natural philosophy, in order to establish a farming method that will become the great principle of an agriculture that continues infinitely.

[r 12][† 9]

— 1992 わら一本の革命・総括編「神と自然と人の革命」 English translation 1996 The Ultimatum of God Nature The One-Straw Revolution A Recapitulation -page 205
— 1984 自然に還る English translation 1987 The Road Back to Nature-Regaining the Paradise Lost -older version of this quotation, pages 362-3
He received “The Desikottam Award, India’s most prestigious award” from the hands of Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1988[r 2][12][20]. In 1991 during his second visit to India, he talked with Prime Minister Narasimha Rao, who came to Prime Ministership after Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated.

Also in 1988, he received the “Ramon Magsaysay Award for Public Service”[r 13], often considered Asia’s Nobel Prize:

In electing MASANOBU FUKUOKA to receive the 1988 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Public Service, the Board of Trustees recognizes his demonstration to small farmers everywhere that natural farming offers a practical, environmentally safe, and bountiful alternative to modern commercial practices and their harmful consequences.
—Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation Board of Trustees, Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation website 1988 citation page[r 13]

In 1998 he received an associated US$10,000 grant from the Rockefeller Brothers Fund[21], who established the annual award in 1957 with an endowment to the Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation. The grant was a contribution toward the publication of a textbook, “Natural Farming – How to Make Clayballs.”[21], which he didn’t proceed with “because of advanced age”, returning the grant in 1999[22].

At the 1997 Earth Summit+5 (Rio+5) forum, March 13–19 in Rio de Janeiro, it was decided to award Masanobu Fukuoka the Earth Council Award, received in person at a ceremony in Tokyo on May 26[23], it “honours politicians, business persons, scholars, and non-governmental organizations for their contributions to sustainable development.”[20]

As an elder at the age of 92, he continued to lecture when he could, such as at World Expo 2005 in Aichi PrefectureJapan[24]. Furthermore on 2 February 2006 for his 93rd birthday: “some friends are celebrating in Tokyo with his video message.”[25] Furthermore on 7 May 2006, he gave a fine hour-long dialogue with Kanamitsu Toshio (金光寿郎?), including extensively discussing and explaining hisIroha song-verses[2], on Japanese television station NHK[26][27]Fukuoka Masanobu (福岡 正信?, Masanobu Fukuoka) died in 2008 on August the 16th, at the age of 95.[27][28]

Curriculum vitae of active service in brief

  • 1913 – Born, in Ehime PrefectureShikoku (island), southern Japan.
  • 1931 – Matsuyama Junior High School (松山中学?) graduation.
  • 1933 – Gifu Prefecture Agricultural College (High School–University) (高農農学科?) graduation, was a student under tuition of eminent Professor Makoto Hiura.
  • 1934 – Yokohama Customs Bureau, Plant Inspection Division (横浜税関植物検査課?) work career, under the supervision of ProfessorEiichi Kurosawa, pathology researcher, renowned for being the first person to isolate gibberellin (plant hormone) – with many significant implications; he regarded Professor Kurosawa as a father.
  • 1937 – May Spring – Enlightenment experience; Next day resigned, from Yokohama Customs Bureau; Many dialogues trying to convey his enlightenment experience, meditation, wandering –western Japan, Yufuin outside Beppu –Kyūshū (island) southern Japan.
  • 1938 – Spring – Return to the family farm to take up farming. Initiating Nature Farming (自然農法?). End-up after only a short time due to ensuing War.
  • 1939 – War years; Kōchi Prefecture agricultural experiment station (農業試験場?) work including farming research & food-production.
  • 1940 – Spring – Married Ayako, together having five children over successive years.
  • 1947 – End of the war; Taking up farming again – Nature Farming (自然農法?) wholehearted devotion.
  • 1950 – Rice & Barley continuous succession no-till farming accomplishment – Nature Farming (自然農法?) establishment.
  • 1972 – Creates “緑の哲学” (literally: Green (verdure) Philosophy) self-published 359 page book of practical-philosophy, theory & practical-ways’ actual-methods of doing-practise, –publication announcement date 1972 April 25 (–he brings attention to this as an under-appreciated fact in later writing, 2001[† 10])
  • 1975 – Creates “自然農法・わら一本の革命” (literally: Nature Farming・Straw One-stalk’s Revolution) published by Hakujusha (柏樹社?).
  • 1979 – July–August – First journey overseas, with Ayako (his wife), to U.S.A., “The two leaders of the health-through-macrobiotics movement in America are Michio Kushi & Herman Aihara in California. It was through their good graces that I was able to tour America in 1979.”, for about 40 days with Mr. Larry Korn (& friend?); Including University of California Berkeley & LAGreen Gulch Farm Zen CenterLundberg Family Farms; meeting with the United Nations – UNCCD –including Mr. Maurice Strong – who encouraged his practical involvement in the “Plan of Action to Combat Desertification”; New York and surrounding states; Boston & Amherst CollegeMassachusetts & so on; sowing seeds.
  • 1983 – Europe, 50 days journey with Mr. Panos (Greek) & Ms. Miriam (Italian), workshops, educating farmers, sowing seeds –Switzerland, Italy with Mr. Giannozzo Pucci also, Austria with Mr. Michio Kushi also, Germany, Holland with Mr. Thomas Nelissen also, France.
  • 1985 – Northern hemisphere summer – Forty days in Africa, Somalia informatively flying through Ethiopia, sowing seeds in areas of desert to re-vegetate them, the then government’s unexpected policies limited him to mainly working in remote villages and an Ethiopian refugee camp.
  • 1986 – Northern hemisphere summer – U.S.A. return for nearly 50 days, including keynote speaker in three “international conferences on nature farming”, July–August, 1 Washington state, 2 San Francisco, 3 Agriculture Dept. University of California, Santa Cruz; Many farms’, forests’ & cities’ visits, giving lectures; Return to Green Gulch Farm Zen Center & Lundberg Family Farms California; MeetingMr. Partap Aggarwal from India for the first time; sowing seeds and so on.
  • 1987–88 – Desikottam Award, India, given by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi at Visva-Bharati University Santiniketan West Bengal; 2 months, lectured in the “Indian Science Congress” and “At seven state agricultural universities and thirty other sites…”; Visited Nature Farms (自然農園?) including those of Mr. Partap C. Aggarwal with the Friends Rural Centre, Rasulia and of nearby Mr. Raju & Mrs. Shalini TitisMadhya Pradesh, giving high praise to both farms.
  • 1988 – August–September – Ramon Magsaysay Award for public service, with Ayako (his wife), Philippines; Journey among forests, farms, plantations, farmer’s markets & the peace memorial monument.
  • 1990 – July – Thailand, propagating nature farming to farmers.
  • 1991 – Thailand, collecting seeds for re-vegetating deserts in India with little success, planting seeds on the grounds of the Kanchanapuri childrens’ village school.
  • 1991 – November–December – India return, 2 months, sowing seeds in the deserts to re-vegetate them…; viewing Mangrove broadcast seeding sucesses, Ganges River, West Bengal state; Calcutta; New Delhi; Meeting Minister of Environment; Meeting Prime MinisterRao; Minister of Agriculture; Madhya Pradesh viewing earlier seed sowing from aeroplanes; Professor Makino & Sister Nagashimainterpreted & translated; ImphalManipur.
  • 1991 – Thailand again trying again to collect seeds. Correcting a problem with the seeds planted on the grounds of the childrens’ village school.
  • 1992 – Participating in official meetings in Japan associated with & at the time of the Rio Earth Summit, Brazil.
  • 1996 – Wet season February– – Tanzania, Africa, journey with Mr. Panos (& Ms. 椿さん?), including sowing seeds in areas of desert to re-vegetate them, observing Baobab-tree & jungle country; 2 days stop off Mumbai India on the way home, incl. met with French–Canadian now–nature–farmer Mr. Jean-Claude Catry & now-health-centre-founder Dr. Vijaya Venkat, etc.
  • 1996 – Vietnam, making, teaching & sowing clay seed balls… .
  • 1997 – Earth Council Award honours for contributions to sustainable development.
  • 1997 – October – India, attending an international seminar to commemorate Gandhi, Gandhi’s Ashram Sevagram (Wardha); 19 days journey, lectured & observed many farms & gardens; Professor Makino interpreted & translated; His Japanese-successor Ms. Honmaled a clay seed ball workshop, with him in attendance, Ms. Morioka assisting, Mr. Raju Titus & many; From Mumbai with Mr. Kisan Mehta re-visiting Mr. Poonamchand Baphna’s nature farm Dahanu, then also Mr. Bhaskar Save’sUmbergaon Gujarat, giving high praise to both farms; Producing a film of the journey.
  • 1998 – Philippines, Nature Farming (自然農法?) research after 10 years passed, including Ms. Aveliw’s Nature Farm (自然農園?), made in only 4 years.
  • 1998 – Spring March & Autumn – Greece with successors Mr. Panos & Ms. Honma, sowing seeds in areas of desert to re-vegetate them including major efforts for 10,000 ha around the Lake Vegoritis area, VegoritidaPella Prefecture; Starting with 2,500 ha; To be completed in Autumn … ; Producing a film of the major seed balls efforts’ journey.
  • 1999 – Mallorca Spain, visit, including making & sowing clay seed balls, interviews … .
  • 2001 – Autumn – China… .
  • 2002 – Autumn October 1–14 – “Nature as Teacher” workshop, Navdanya Farm & Bija Vidyapeeth – Earth University directed by Dr. Vandana ShivaDehra Dun Uttarakhand, northern India; On Gandhi Day (Oct 2) he gave the third Albert Howard memorial annual lecture; Successor Ms. Honma attended teaching all to make seedballs & translating; Many attendees (50+) from all the six continents, including “15 Tibetan Agricultural Extension Officers”.
  • 2002 – Autumn – Afghanistan, with his successor Ms. Honma he made major preparations in Japan beforehand collecting lots of seeds, he “had planned to spread seedballs in Afghanistan, but isn’t feeling up to it these days (he is barely able to walk). So he sent Yuko”; 8 tons of seed were shipped.
  • 2008 – August 16 died.

Select creations

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Video・ Documentary – Fukuoka Masanobu goes to India 1997

Living-organisms’ Planet – “For Living on the Planet Earth”

Nature Farming (ways-laws-dharma)・Fukuoka Masanobu – Clay seed balls rescue Earth.

Farming (ways-laws-dharma) supervision: Fukuoka Masanobu / Clay Seed Balls guidance: Honma Yuko / Direction: Imaizumi Kōji / Production: Salbong (Non-profit Movie Production) (Japanese-Hindi interpreter & translator Professor Makino Saiji; Assistant Morioka Naoko)

ビデオ・ ドキュメンタリー 福岡正信インドヘ行く

生き物たちの惑星「地球で生きるために」

自然農法・福岡正信 粘土団子が地球を救う。

農法監修 福岡正信/粘土団子指導 本間 裕子/演出 今泉 光司/制作 サルボン(非営利映像制作)

NTSC VHS/BTC STEREO – Japanese language edition・59 minutes – English language edition・61 minutes – 1998 – (available now, recently, on DVD in Japanese, instead of only tape…?)

Company: サルボン (Salbong)

NTSC VHS/BTC STEREO 日本語版・59分 英語版・61分 テープ

サルボン

Papers in scientific and Buddhist terms published at least as early as 1937 at age 24, include, in Japanese only:

Books with translations to English include the following:

  • 1947 mu: kami no kakumei (無 神の革命?) 1st ed self-publ[29][30]. Publ 1973 as mu I: kami no kakumei (無 I 神の革命?). Re-publ 1985 & 2004 Shunjūsha (春秋社?).
  • 1975 shizen nōhō-wara ippon no kakumei (自然農法 わら一本の革命?)
    • 1978 “The One-Straw Revolution” translators Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa & Larry Korn. Preface Wendell Berry. Rodale Press. 1984– Indian Eng. edns. 2009 30 yr anniv. publ. NYRB.
  • 1976 shizen nōhō-midori no tetsugaku no riron to jissen (自然農法 緑の哲学の理論と実践?)
    • 1985 “The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green Philosophy” translator Frederic P. Metreaud. Japan Publications.
  • 1984 shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る?Shunjūsha (春秋社?).
    • 1987 “The Road Back to Nature-Regaining the Paradise Lost” translator Frederic P. Metreaud. Japan Publications.
  • 1992 wara ippon no kakumei・sōkatsuhen「kami to shizen to hito no kakumei」 (わら一本の革命・総括編「神と自然と人の革命」?)
    • 1996 “The Ultimatum of God Nature The One-Straw Revolution A Recapitulation” He commissioned an English retranslation & very limited printing[32].
  • and at least nine more Japanese books or major revisions of his books. His first book self-published in 1947[29][30], and the apparent next one, better known in 1958[33][34][35]

Translation of philosophy and language

[icon] This section requires expansion(January 2011)

The Chinese無為Traditional無爲Pinyin Roman charactersWú wéiSimplified无为 phrase of Tao-philosophy origin, widely recognised in ‘the West’, translates directly to this Japanese word pronounced mu i (無為?, unconditioned…)[18]. Evidently some loss of some connections of awareness, occurred in use of English translations of his Japanese writing (of mu i (無為?) -Wú wéi); Compare for example, in the following footnotes’ webpages’ wonderful writing, their different awarenesses of connections between his writings and Wú wéi (無為)[19][36].

Masanobu Fukuoka writes some articulation, philosophically, of his enlightenment experience, in BuddhistTaoistGandhianChristian andShinto terms:

  • mu (無?, “non-existent”, “non-being”, “Pure human awareness, prior to experience or knowledge.”, ‘no thing’, his: “nothingness”)[17],
  • mu shin (無心?, “lacking (defiled) thought”, his: “empty mind”, “no-mind” & “state of detachment”)[37]
  • mu i (無為?, “unconditioned…”, his: “do-nothing”, his and a widely accepted translation: “no-action”, also un-domesticated)[6][18],
  • mu fun betsu (無分別?, “devoid of discrimination”, his: “non-discrimination”)[† 5][38],
  • shi zen or ji nen (自然?, “spontaneously”, “original nature”, “suchness, thusness”, “the appearance of true reality as it is, or a thing just as it is.”, “self-existent”, spontaneous natureinnate-nature, nature, “so of its own”, ‘just so’, natural or naturally”, original Chinese reading: zìrán)[10],
  • mu i shi.zen/ji.nen (無為自然?, unconditioned nature, his “do-nothing nature”, also unadulterated nature, un-domesticated nature)[39][40]

Parallel identical sentences in both Japanese and English-translation including the words “無”, “無心”, “無為”, “無分別”, “自然” and “無為自然”, and further sentences clarifying and elaborating on them, became available in 1996 with his privately re-translated and published English very limited edition, “The Ultimatum of God–Nature : A Recapitulation” of “The One-Straw Revolution“.

Brief sentences in, Japanese under the heading “「矛盾の誕生」” from page 83, second column[† 11], and English under the heading “The Birth and Expansion of Contradictions” from page 110, top half[† 12], respectively, provide parallel-translation quotations juxtaposed below:

「知らぬが仏と、無心・無意・無為の道を歩むしかない。」
We can only walk the path of not-knowing, of no-mind, no-will, and no-action.

「太古、智恵の木の実を食べた原人の原罪をつぐなう道は唯一つ、無為自然のエデンの花園創りに励むしかない。」
There is only one path of atonement for the original sin of primitive man, eating the fruit of the tree of knowledge. That is to create a Garden of Eden of do-nothing nature.

「すなわち元の自然に還って自然と一体となり、無分別、自他合一(共生)の世界に生きるしかない。」
In other words, we can only return to original nature, become one with it, and live in a world of non-discrimination and unity (symbiosis).

Hence from this and additional examples written in his 1996 English Recapitulation and re-translation, the English phrases: “do-nothing”, “no-action” or ‘not doing’, all refer to the Japanese word mu i (無為?, unconditioned…, Wú wéi). His “do-nothing” does particularly not mean literally do nothing, nor passive, idleness, doing nothing, no work, laziness, no effort, consumerism, complacency, apathy, etc.[18] – he explicitly calls this non-intervention, laissez-faire or abandonment of nature, in English-translations[† 13][† 14][r 14]; “He reminded us that his techniques are not literally do-nothing. They are more like do nothing against nature”[6] and come to our small parts of bigger-than-all-of-us god–nature, wherein god–nature coauthors all actions through all of us, each as active small-participants, and credit goes to god–nature, –come to nature–[r 3][5]. God–nature refers in other words to: breath of life, the universal life force in all, kami (?) in Japanese, or great spirit in many cultures translated into English words, etc., not–merely to God of Judaism, Christianity, Islam or merely of any one religion. In the 1970s he apparently advised English-translators preparing the 1978 first English edition of “The One-Straw Revolution“, Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa and Larry Korn, to use the English apparent-mystery-phrase “do-nothing” (including often inside quotation marks) for Wú wéi mu i (無為?, unconditioned…). Seemingly, he intended “do-nothing” as a mystery phrase in English language, to usher readers to ourselves directly realise the meaning, by having direct, non-verbal, ineffable, experiences, as well understood in “Oriental natural philosophy”; Including as manifested in his practise of, and as experienced in the practise of Nature Farming. If this is as it seems, he took an insightful multi-level-meaning-approach to the English translation.

His subsequent reprise, in his Japanese and his English-translation, quote:

私は西洋人から “do nothingの男” と言われるが、ただ時計を捨てただけである。
Westerners call me a “do-nothing man”, but I simply threw away my watch.
—福岡正信, 1992 わら一本の革命・総括編「神と自然と人の革命」 – New and expanded edition published 2001 わら一本の革命 総括編 —粘土団子の旅— -page54.
(Fukuoka Masanobu), English translation private limited ed. printing 1996 The Ultimatum of God Nature The One-Straw Revolution A Recapitulation -page 49.

Nature farming

Masanobu Fukuoka practised a system of farming he referred to as shizen nōhō (自然農法?Nature Farming[10][r 4]; In English translations till now as “The Natural Way of Farming” or Natural Farming for shorthand. In India, “natural farming” is often referred to as “Rishi Kheti (farming as practised by the ancient sages).”[11][12][41]. Although many of his plant varieties and some of his practises, may relate specifically to Japan and even to specific local conditions there in subtropical western Shikoku (southern island), his philosophy and the governing principles of his farming systems see practical application around the world; Practised with mostly different varieties of plants in different places and climates, as for example in India, in Africa and even in the cold temperate north end of mainland Honshū (island),Aomori Prefecture, far northern Japan, in Akinori Kimura’s[42] apple orchard nature farming (自然農法 shizen nōhō?).

Principally his systems minimise the human labour or disturbance, in facilitating as closely as practical, nature’s reproduction of human foods, such as rice, barley, daikon or citrus mixed within biodiverse agricultural-ecosystems. Without plowingseeds germinate quite happily on the surface if nature’s conditions at each seed’s site meet that seed’s requirements. Considerable emphasis also gets given to practises sustaining of diversity rather than destructive of it. Spiders’ continuing residence in his annual crop fields provides a ‘key performance indicator‘ of sustainability, he points out.

Ground always remains covered. Weeds, ground cover of white cloveralfalfa (medic) and more herbaceous legumes, and sometimes additional deliberately sown herbaceous plants, receive regard as part of the ecosystems of the grains’ crops, vegetables’ crops and orchards.

Masanobu Fukuoka re-invented for the present era and advanced, the art of clay seed balls (粘土 団子 nendo dango?, literally (粘 Sticky, 土 Earth) –Clay, 団子 Dumplings) also earth seed balls (土 団子 tsuchi dango?). Clay seed balls are originally an ancient art, known from at least some First American peoples’ practises. Seeds for next season’s crops get mixed together, perhaps with a little humus or sometimescompost, for microbial inoculants, then rolled within the clay to form into small balls.

Iyokan
Iyokan
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Angiosperms
(unranked): True dicotyledons
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Citrus
Species: C. × iyo
Amanatsu / Natsumikan
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Angiosperms
(unranked): True dicotyledons
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Citrus
Species: C. natsudaidai
Binomial name
Citrus natsudaidai
Hayata

In the orchard of naturally-grown iyokan (citrus) trees (伊予柑 – イヨカン iyo kan?), amanatsu trees (甘夏 ama natsu?, -a variety of Citrus natsudaidai Natsumikan –a sweet-and-sour summer citrus –also see mikan or satsuma), pomelo or shaddock (文旦 pum tan?) and several more related citrus varieties, cherry blossomspeachesplums, pears, loquatschayotes or chokos, chinese gooseberries or kiwi fruits, in his Japanese-English“Morishima acacia” (“モリシマ アカシア”?) trees, in other words the “Australian native Black Wattle” (Acacia mearnsii, earlier in his time named Acacia mollissima), Meyer lemons and more varieties of lemons, more different citrus varieties,mugwortschestnutspersimmonsmeliascamphor treeswax myrtlecamelliashydrangeas, etc.; Various welcomed weeds; Sown white clover and many more leguminous plant species varieties; Buckwheat or sobadaikonturnipsweet potato or kumara, Chinese cabbage,burdock or gobō, rapeseed, Indian mustardpotherb mustard or mizuna, etc.; Many local native wild plant species eg. “many wild herbs”, pines, Japanese cedar or sugi, groves of Bamboo, ferns[43]; Many more vegetable and herb plant species; All growing together, all receiving regard as parts of the ecosystem. Accordingly also, chickens run free through the orchards. Periodically some ground layer plants including weeds may get cut, low-down, with long-handled kama (?, Japanese sickles-scythes)[† 8], and allowed to lie on the surface so the nutrients they contain are returned to the soil, so shading and suppressing (re-)growth of weeds, and hence facilitating the option of perhaps sowing more vegetable or herb seeds, either naked or within clay seed balls, in the area.

In the summer-rice and winter-barley grains’ crops, ground covers of particularly white clover, and also of alfalfa (medic) and more herbaceous legumes grow under the grain plants, naturally providing, –fixing– nitrogen from the atmosphere. As well as these and the weeds, straw from the previous crop covers the topsoil, as mulch.

Each grain crop is sown before the previous one is harvested. This is done by broadcasting the seed among the standing crop.

The result is a denser crop of smaller but highly productive and stronger plants.

For growing agricultural crops, also, the use of prepared fertilizer can be discontinued. For the most part, a permanent green manure cover and the return of all the straw and chaff to the soil will be sufficient. To provide animal manure to help decompose the straw, I used to let ducks loose in the fields. If they are introduced as ducklings while the seedlings are still young, the ducks will grow up together with the rice. Ten ducks will supply all the manure necessary for a quarter acre and will also help to control the weeds. I did this for many years until the construction of a national highway made it impossible for the ducks to get across the road and back to the coop. Now I use a little chicken manure to help decompose the straw. In other areas ducks or other small grazing animals are still a practical possibility.
—Masanobu Fukuoka, 1975 自然農法-わら一本の革命 English translation 1978 The One-Straw Revolution -page 37.
[spreading chicken manure activities] However, from the standpoint of natural farming, it would be preferable and much easier to release ten ducklings per quarter-acre onto the field when the rice seedlings have become established. Not only do the ducks weed and pick off insects, they turn the soil. But they do have to be protected from stray dogs and hawks. Another good idea might be to release young carp. By making full, three-dimensional use of the field in this way, one can at the same time produce good protein foods.
—Masanobu Fukuoka, 1975 自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践 English translation 1985 The Natural Way of Farming -page 177 last paragraph.

His practises and philosophy emphasises small scale farming and disproves mechanised-broad-acre farming’s simplistic-suppositions of essential-higher-productivity, of efficiencies and of economies-of-scale; While his family’s-farm’s area overall is larger, larger than the then average Japanese farm area, he wrote of one field of his already established grain crops as an example of small scale farming:

In caring for a quarter-acre field, one or two people can do all the work of growing rice and winter grain in a matter of a few days. It seems unlikely that there could be a simpler way of raising grain. The method completely contradicts modern agricultural techniques. It throws scientific knowledge and traditional know-how right out the window. With this kind of farming, which uses no machines, no prepared fertilizer and no chemicals, it is possible to attain a harvest equal to or greater than that of the average Japanese farm. The proof is ripening right before your eyes.
—Masanobu Fukuoka, 1975 自然農法-わら一本の革命 English translation 1978 The One-Straw Revolution -page 3.

Nowadays, “Fukuoka Masanobu’s nature farm (福岡正信の自然農園 shizen nōen?)” in Ehime Prefecture, Shikoku, southern Japan has changed primary-hands to his son, gradually during the late 1980s, as he reached an advanced age. In the 1980s he recorded that he and his family “ships some 6,000 crates” of citrus “(thirty-three pounds each), to Tokyo each year” (-totalling in metric about 90 tons)[r 2]. His orchard of natural iyo-kan and ama-natsu-mikan, more related varieties of citrus, of many different fruit trees, vines, shrubs, including more different citrus, of many different types of vegetables, herbs, local native trees, bamboo, shrubs, ferns and more species, and weeds eg.Tradescantia sp., all growing mixed together, has matured through succession considerably over recent decades.

Today the natural iyo-kan and ama-natsu-mikan trees still grow, although some old iyo-kan have finished of old age, replaced by distinct new varieties of fruit for the orchard, with the remaining pre-existing types of orchard and fruit trees, continuing straw-mulched crops’ areas, vegetables’ crops’ areas, still some extensive vegetables under the orchard fruit trees, still bamboo groves, and many pre-existing trees and plants, all at the very least still grow in his family’s “Fukuoka nature farm (“福岡自然農園” Fukuoka shizen nōen?)”; Now with an area ofGinko (trees), with places growing Shiitake mushrooms in tree bases, with the distinct new varieties for the orchard area, including Limes,GrapefruitsFeijoasAvocadosMangos, and so on, all together with the previous, providing abundant harvests for his son’s family, substantial family, community and visitors’ employment, and apparently reliable-prosperity for healthy people –healthy ecosystem–[44][45][46][47][48][49].

Re-Greening Deserts

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See also

Key Quotations and Words

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  1. ^ Shōshin: a chinese reading of the kanji characters 正信
  2. ^ 1975 わら一本の革命 1978 (US edition) “The One-Straw Revolution” -page 119 (and page xii Wendell Berry’s quotation in preface), furthermore a footnote beneath the sentence explains more, quote:
    *In this paragraph Mr. Fukuoka is drawing a distinction between techniques undertaken in conscious pursuit of a given objective, and those which arise spontaneously as the expression of a person’s harmony with nature as he goes about his daily business, free from the domination of the volitional intellect.
  3. ^ 1992 わら一本の革命・総括編「神と自然と人の革命」 1996 “The Ultimatium [sic] of God Nature The One-Straw RevolutionA Recapitulation” -page 2 -quote:
    In an instant I had become a different person. I sensed that, with the clearing of the dawn mist, I had been transformed completely, body and soul. The first words that rose to my lips were, “There is nothing. There really is nothing at all, whether this be the mundane world or God’s world.” I leaped to my feet in joyful amazement. Just as the saying goes. God had struck me like a bolt from the blue. It is no exaggeration to say that peals of thunder beat against my head and lightning flashed, as the true nature of this world became vividly apparent to me. I was so overcome with powerful emotion that I was reduced to trembling, both in body and in spirit. I shouted for joy, with words that must have been incomprehensible. With all my might I had been grasping at something, foolishly searching for something when there was nothing there at all. The sparkle of the morning dew on the grass, the green of the trees bathed in morning light and trembling with joy, the delightful chatter of the birds gathered in the dawn…. what a wonder it was that I too was able to take my place in this realm of freedom, this world of ecstasy. I literally clapped my hands and stamped my feet in my delight at knowing God, and I was unable to stop trembling. The tempest of emotion that assailed me at that time is indelibly impressed in my mind, its freshness undimmed even today. And yet, I could not expect those feelings to last forever. As I recall, I did not continue long in that state of physical and spiritual ecstasy, bathed in rapture and at the height of bliss.
  4. ^ 2001 わら一本の革命 総括編 —粘土団子の旅— Japanese only (a title translate: “The One Straw Revolution Recapitulation -Journeying [around Earth] with clay seed balls-“) -biographical notes on page 271 -quote: “15 May 1937 Awakening in Yokohama city (昭和12年 5月 15日 横浜に於て開悟 自然農法の道一筋?)” – awakening; to uncover enlightenment(開悟 kaigo?)
  5. a b 1975 わら一本の革命 1978 (US edition) “The One-Straw Revolution” -page 124, quote:
    …human knowledge–discriminating and non-discriminating.** People generally believe that unmistaken recognition of the world is possible through discrimination alone. Therefore, the word “nature” as it is generally spoken, denotes nature as it is perceived by the discriminating intellect. I deny the empty image of nature as created by the human intellect, and clearly distinguish it from nature itself as experienced by non-discriminating understanding. If we eradicate the false conception of nature, I believe the root of the world’s disorder will disappear. …” – the footnote explanation, quote: “**This is a distinction made by many Oriental philosophers. Discriminating knowledge is derived from the analytic, wilful intellect in an attempt to organize experience into a logical framework. …in this process, the individual sets himself apart from nature. It is the “limited scientific truth and judgement” discussed on pg. 84. Non-discriminating knowledge arises without conscious effort on the part of the individual when experience is accepted as it is, without interpretation of the intellect. While discriminating knowledge is essential for analyzing practical problems in the world, … ultimately it provides too narrow a perspective.
  6. a b 1975 自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践 1985 -revised ed. 1987 “The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green Philosophy” -page 171-quote:
    One thing is all things. To resolve one matter, one must resolve all matters. Changing one thing changes all things. Once I made the decision to sow rice in the fall, I found that I could also stop transplanting, and plowing, and applying chemical fertilizers, and preparing compost, and spraying pesticides.
  7. a b 1975 わら一本の革命 1978 “The One-Straw Revolution” -page 40-quote:
    These four principles of natural farming (no cultivation, no chemical fertilizer or prepared compost, no weeding by tillage or herbicides, and no dependence on chemicals) comply with the natural order and lead to the replenishment of nature’s richness.
  8. a b 1975 わら一本の革命 1978 (US edition) “The One-Straw Revolution” kama (?, Japanese sickles-scythes) having various angled blades and handles -often long-handled for low cutting of grasses, crops or weeds from a standing-walking position – but also short handled for harvesting some kinds of crops or other cutting work -photos on pages 46 (in use but hard to see), 93, 140, 158 and 169
  9. ^ 1984 自然に還る 1987 “The Road Back to Nature-Regaining the Paradise Lost” -page 362-3 “Making the Change from Organic to Natural Farming” by a different translator with slightly different wording in this older book, these updated words quoted have the same meaning.
  10. ^ 2001 福岡正信 わら一本の革命 総括編 —粘土団子の旅— Japanese only (a title translate: “The One Straw Revolution Recapitulation -Journeying [around Earth] with clay seed balls-“) -his page 266 description, quote:
    自然哲学の理論とその実践万法である自然農法の栽培万法著した

    (literally: Nature-(spontaneous) philosophy’s theories and in-actual-practise all-methods-laws-dharma-ways to-be, Nature-Farming’s cultivation all-methods-laws-dharma-ways, written work.)

  11. ^ 2001 わら一本の革命 総括編 —粘土団子の旅— Japanese only (a title translate: “The One Straw Revolution Recapitulation -Journeying [around Earth] with clay seed balls-“) -under the heading “「矛盾の誕生’」” on page 83 second column,
  12. ^ 1992 わら一本の革命・総括編「神と自然と人の革命」 1996 “The Ultimatum of God Nature The One-Straw Revolution A Recapitulation” – under the heading “The Birth and Expansion of Contradictions” from page 110, top half
  13. ^ 1975 自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践 1985 -revised ed. 1987 “The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green Philosophy” -pages 132 and 190-216 – page 132 quote:
    There is a fundamental difference between nature and the doctrine of laissez-faire or non-intervention. Laissez-faire is the abandoning of nature by man after he has altered it, such as leaving a pine tree untended after it has been transplanted in a garden and pruned, or suddenly letting a calf out to pasture in a mountain meadow after raising it on formula milk.
  14. ^ 1992 わら一本の革命・総括編「神と自然と人の革命」 1996 “The Ultimatum of God Nature The One-Straw Revolution A Recapitulation” -pages 5, 50, 97-8, 206-208 – page 98 quote:
    To put it very briefly, my theory is that human knowledge and actions have destroyed nature, and thus, if we abandon them and leave nature to nature, nature will recover on its own. This does not, however, mean nonintervention.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Gammage, Bill (2005), “‘…far more happier than we Europeans’: Aborigines and farmers” (PDF), London Papers in Australian Studies (formerly Working Papers in Australian Studies) (London: Menzies Centre for Australian Studies. King’s College. Each year the Centre publishes London Papers in Australian Studies . These are representative of some of the most recent and exciting intellectual work in Australian Studies.) (12): 1–27, ISSN 1746-1774,http://www.kcl.ac.uk/content/1/c6/01/27/52/LPAS12BillGammage1.pdf, retrieved 2010-11-23
  2. a b Fukuoka Masanobu 2009 iroha kakumei uta (いろは革命歌?, Iroha Revolutionary Verses) His last creation and testament -webpage describing this creation (Japanese text only with photos and links) 2009 June post in Mahoroba blog, of natural foods company owned by a friend of his and his family. (Japanese only; Retrieved 2010-11-30)
  3. ^ NHK TV station appearances’, 1976 earliest search result NHK programs’ archive database web page. -an attempted translation of the program summary from that page: ‘In Ehime Prefecture central, Dōgo plain’s edge, seemingly different from the surrounding rice paddy fields/farms. This farm’s/rice-paddy-field’s owner is Iyo-shi’s Fukuoka Masanobu (62 years old). Without any plowing for 30 years, rice plants grow without either synthetic chemical fertilizers or synthetic agricultural chemicals (pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, etc.). At first glance, rice is fruiting as a victory without a battle, so to sound out what he says.’ (Japanese only; Retrieved 2010-11-30)
  4. ^ NHK TV station appearances’ search results NHK programs’ archive database web page listing. (Japanese only; Retrieved 2010-11-30)
  5. a b c d Blog of Partap C. Aggarwal Indian associate of Mr. Fukuoka, eulogy page: “Fukuoka sensei” reflecting on his dying blog post 2008 Aug 27. He was a student and “brother” (peer) of Mr. Fukuoka sensei meeting him numerous times in India, USA & so on. -quote:
    His insight was to blend with nature all our actions.

    He organised the first Indian publishing of The One–Straw Revolution (in English), with Mr. Fukuoka’s permission, by The Friends Rural Centre, Rasulia, Hoshangabad, Madhya Pradesh, in 1983–4 onwards, many imprints. Blog post 2008 Feb 2!

  6. a b c Masanobu Fukuoka’s 2002 Oct teachings at the Navdanya India “Nature as Teacher” workshop relayed by Kristi in brief-part, 2003 Jan quote part:
    Fukuoka said that while most farmers run around asking questions like “how do i do this?” or “what can i do about this?”, he asks “how can i NOT do this?” or “how can i let nature do this for me?” but, he reminded us that his techniques are not literally do-nothing. they are more like do nothing against nature.

    -Fukuoka_farming Yahoo! group 2003 Jan 31

  7. a b c Interwoven philosophy and practise in the context of ‘do-nothing’ (Wú wéi), explanation by Jamie (souscayrous) -Fukuoka_Farming Yahoo Group 2003
  8. a b Latour, Bruno (1993). We have never been modern. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674948396.http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=TzQAPY8-S7UC.
  9. ^ Kato, Sadamichi (2003 Oct 28) “Body and Earth Are Not Two” Studies in Language and Culture. Graduate School of Languages and Cultures, Nagoya University.
  10. a b c Muller, A. Charles, ed. Digital Dictionary of Buddhism (Edition of 2010 July 31) page: shi zen (自然?, “spontaneously”) meaning: text by “C. Muller: [Basic Meaning:] spontaneously; Senses: Automatically, naturally; of itself, despite effort. The situation of a person having no intention at all towards anybody to even the slightest extent. Existing in freedom without any attachment. [cmuller; source(s): JEBD,Yokoi]; The original nature of things; original nature (Skt. dharma-svabhāva-mudrā). Suchness, thusness 眞如 (Skt. tathatā). The appearance of true reality as it is, or a thing just as it is. [cmuller]; Self-existent (Skt. svayaṃ-bhū); also 自爾; 法爾 self-existing, the self-existent; Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and others. [cmuller; source(s): Soothill]” -login required, use username=guest password= (without a password) –Chinese: 自然; pinyinzìrán
  11. a b “Natural farming succeeds in Indian village By Partap C Aggarwal” in the 1980s, quote:
    … Slowly, bit by bit, we found ourselves close to what is called ‘natural farming’, pioneered in Japan by Masanobu Fukuoka. At Rasulia we called it ‘rishi kheti’ (agriculture of the sages).
  12. a b c “Shalini and Raju Titus”, MP, India 2006 quote:
    We are practicing and preaching Natural way of farming based on zero tillage since last 20 years in the name of Rishi kheti. … …

    -Fukuoka_Farming Yahoo! Group 2006

  13. ^ “Natural Farming Centre, Greece”
  14. ^ “Natural Farming Italy / Agricoltura naturale”
  15. ^ “Fukuoka Nature Farming … Fukuoka farming in Thailand and Japan”
  16. ^ Fukuoka in Afghanistan, quote:
    Mr. Fukuoka is now 91 and on a wheel chair but keeping himself busy going to countries for seeding wherever there is a food shortage. I heard he made a trip to India and Afghanistan last fall.

    -Fukuoka_farming Yahoo! group 2003

  17. a b Muller, A. Charles, ed. Digital Dictionary of Buddhism (edition of 2010 July 31) page: mu (無?, “non-existent”) an “Oriental natural philosophy” simplified Chinese: 无; traditional Chinesepinyin -login required, use username=guest password= (without a password)
  18. a b c d Muller, A. Charles, ed. Digital Dictionary of Buddhism (edition of 2010 July 31) page: mui (無為?, “unconditioned”) an“Oriental natural philosophy” meaning: text by “C. Muller (source(s): YBh-Ind) : Uncompounded, uncreated; … that which is not arisen on the basis of causes and conditions. That which is unconnected with the relationship of cause and effect. Absolutely eternal true reality which transcends arising-changing-cessation. Another name for nirvāṇa or tathatā. This was originally an important technical term in Daoism.” –simplified Chinese无为traditional Chinese無爲pinyinWú wéi (Sanskrit: असंस्कृत Tibetan:འདུས་མ་བྱས, Wylie‘dus ma byas) -login required, use username=guest password= (without a password)
  19. a b c d hootenfarmer blog, Japan, -mui-kipedia pages, specific Japanese blog about Fukuoka Masanobu (福岡 正信?), shizen nōhō (自然農法?Nature Farming), nendo dango (粘土団子?clay seed balls), and more related topics, including recently these linked specific ‘mui-kipedia’・… (“ムイ(無為)キペディア・無為の種蒔き百科事典” mui (mui) kipedia・…?) pages on his specific writings relating mui (無為?). (Japanese only; Retrieved 2010-11-30)
  20. a b “Japanese Farmer-Philosopher Masanobu Fukuoka: Natural Farming Greening the Deserts” Japan for Sustainability Newsletter 2006 May. (English) –Japanese page. (Retrieved 2011-1-5)
  21. a b “Rockefeller Brothers Fund – 1998 Grants made in 1998”” (2003 archive) -quote:
    As a contribution toward the publication of a textbook, “Natural Farming – How to Make Clayballs.”
  22. ^ “Fukuoka Returned Rockefeller Grant in 1999” -quote: “Iearned from Lydia Brown of the Rockefeller Foundation a few minutes ago that although Fukuoka was awarded a Ramon Magsaysay Program for Asian Projects Grant for $10,000 in 1998 to write a textbook on how to make clayballs, he returned the money in December 1999. He said in the letter to the foundation that because of advanced age he was unable to complete the project.” -Fukuoka_farming Yahoo! group 2003
  23. ^ Earth Council Awards 1997 Japan – Japanese Government Environment department website press release (Japanese only; Retrieved 2010-11-30)
  24. ^ World Expo Aichi Japan 2005 appearance -official web page for his session in 2005 Aug 4. (Japanese only; Retrieved 2010-11-30)
  25. ^ 93rd Birthday notice from his associate Michiyo who has visited him regularly -quote:
    Today is Masanobu Fukuoka’s 93rd birthday. Some friends are celebrating in Tokyo with his video message.

    -Fukuoka_Farming Yahoo! Group 2006 Feb 2. (Retrieved 2010-11-30)

  26. ^ A translation: ‘Mind-times’ ~ Religion・Life こころの時代~宗教・人生 television interview between Fukuoka Masanobu andKanamitsu Toshio (金光寿郎?) on the topic: Journey around the world with Clay seed balls ~ 60 years Nature-Farming advancements 粘土団子、世界の旅~自然農法60年の歩み 2006 May 7 on Japanese station NHK (Japanese only; Retrieved 2010-11-30)
  27. a b Eulogy page with NHK Iroha dialogue hour-long TV program video copy in 6 segments (Japanese text only with photos and videos) 2008 August post in Mahoroba blog, of natural foods company owned by friend of late Mr. Fukuoka and family. (Japanese only; Retrieved 2010-11-30)
  28. ^ Diary letter relating with rich meanings of late Mr. Fukuoka sensei-practitioner’s death, of: Obituaries; The all night vigil; Funeral service; Family’s condolence messages; Nothingness proof; Family relations; Conclusion; Clay seed balls practise, results and true meaning and purpose; The motion of fate-karma-destiny; The transition between eternal spiritual unconditioned-reality and the vicissitudes of phenomenal-material conditioned karmic-life in the world; and other sections, in this one of Mahoroba Diary’s occasional letters. (Japanese only; Retrieved 2010-11-30)
  29. a b Society for the study of Fukuoka Masanobu Nature Farming, Kyoto University, Japan, by Shōjaku Mutsumi (Shift-JIS encoding), having extensive collected details about Fukuoka Masanobu’s life work, nature farming and writings (no translation to English from Japanese yet). Regarding Fukuoka Masanobu’s first publication, a Japanese quote:
    ・『無 神の革命』福岡正信著・・・福岡正信さんが昭和22年に自費出版した幻の名著の改訂版、昭和48年発行、『無Ⅰ』の原型

    -“「昭和22年」” means 1947 in English. (Japanese only; Retrieved 2010-11-30)

  30. a b c “Jean-Claude Catry, 2003 Nov”, quote:
    i have a copy of his first book written in the 40″s “the god’s farming “. it is a dialog between him and a wise men from the mountain ( imaginery i assumed )

    -Fukuoka_Farming Yahoo! Group

  31. ^ Picture of: Fukuoka, Masanobu 1964 “Mu 1-The God Revolution” translated by Alfred Birnbaum. Japan. -from Amazon.com
  32. ^ Michiyo, associate of Fukuoka writing, quote:
    it has never been out in the market, and in my understanding, the total number of the English edition published is less than one hundred. The copies were mainly brought overseas by Fukuoka-san and Honma-san as gifts…

    -Fukuoka_farming Yahoo! group 2003 (Retrieved 2010-11-30)

  33. ^ 福岡正信 Japanese Wikipedia page (Japanese only; Retrieved 2010-11-30)
  34. ^ Japanese page from BK1 bookstore listing most of Fukuoka Masanobu’s books (Japanese only; Retrieved 2010-11-30)
  35. ^ WebCat Plus (Japanese) page of 福岡 正信 Fukuoka Masanobu’s publications, with 40 listings. Japanese national extensive publications catalogue (latest technology web 2.0 catalogue). National Institute of Informatics, Japan. (Japanese only; Retrieved 2010-11-30)
  36. ^ “TIA: The One-Straw Revolution by the Reverent Eater” -online blog.
  37. ^ Muller, A. Charles, ed. Digital Dictionary of Buddhism (edition of 2010 Nov 1) page: mu shin (無心?, “lacking (defiled) thought”) an “Oriental natural philosophy” meaning: text by “C. Muller: “[Chan] Without discriminating thought. Without special purpose or aim (Skt. *acetana). Natural, spontaneous. [cmuller]” Chinese: 無心; pinyinwúxīn -login required, use username=guest password= (without a password)
  38. ^ Muller, A. Charles, ed. Digital Dictionary of Buddhism (edition of 2010 July 31) page: mu fun betsu (無分別?, “devoid of discrimination”, in English-translations’: “non-discrimination”), an “Oriental natural philosophy” meaning: text by “C. Muller, S. Hodge; (reference(s): Nakamura): Without differentiation, devoid of conceptualizing (Skt. nirvikalpa,avikalpa, vinikalpa; Tib. rnam par rtog pa med pa, rnam par mi rtog pa, mi rtog pa). The function of a state of mind where there is freedom from making distinctions between objects, or between subject and objects, normally considered to be the superior mode of function of the enlightened mind in Mahāyāna Buddhism.” -login required, use username=guest password= (without a password)
  39. ^ Muller, A. Charles, ed. Digital Dictionary of Buddhism (edition of 2010 October 1) page: mui jinen/shizen (無為自然?, unconditioned nature, Fukuoka, Masanobu’s “do-nothing nature”)-automatically changed to:>無爲自然 (using an older traditional kanji rendering of 為), an “Oriental natural philosophy” meaning: text by “C. Muller; source(s): Nakamura,Soothill (Dictionary References: Bulgyo sajeon754b-36 Bukkyōgo daijiten (Nakamura)1313b Soothill380) Basic Meaning: unconditioned and spontaneous Senses: Causeless and spontaneous, a tr. of nivṛtti. 〔無量壽經 T 360.12.275c12〕 ” –Chinese: 無爲自然; pinyin:wúwéi zìrán -login required, use username=guest password= (without a password)
  40. ^ Kenkyusha’s, Tokyo, New Japanese-English Dictionary Fifth ed. 2003 -page 2517 quote:
    むいしぜん【無為自然】〔老荘思想の [translation: The thought of Laozi and Zhuangzi]〕 abandoning artifice and (just) being oneself.
  41. ^ “Masanobu Fukuoka: The man who did nothing By Malvika Tegta” “DNA Daily News and Analysis”. “Published: Sunday, Aug 22, 2010, 2:59 IST”. “Place: Mumbai”, India. (Retrieved 2010-12-1)
  42. ^ Akinori Kimura’s “Miracle Apples” Nature Farming, far northern Japan -quality online freely available book, including chapters relating with Masanobu Fukuoka. (Retrieved 2010-11-30)
  43. ^ uraijiro (裏白?Gleichenia ?glauca) and koshida (小羊歯?, ?Gleichenia dichotoma) 1975 自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践 1985 -revised ed. 1987 “The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green Philosophy” -eg. pages 140 and 277
  44. ^ hootenfarmer blog, Japan, -specific Japanese blog about Fukuoka Masanobu (福岡 正信?), shizen nōhō (自然農法?NatureFarming), nendo dango (粘土団子?clay seed balls), and more related topics, including recently ‘mui-kipedia’ pages on his specific writings on mui (無為?). (Japanese only; Retrieved 2010-11-30)
  45. ^ Esu Coop Osaka exchange visit to Fukuoka Masanobu’s son’s family’s nature farm (blog page posted 2004 Dec) -includes great photos of the farm having interesting and helpful captions’ text, eg. 91 year old Mr. Fukuoka; the Ama-Natsu-Mikan and their orchard; Daikon radishes growing in the Ama-Natsu-Mikan orchard; a current serious pest problem of white spotted longicorn beetle; Family, young people and employees working there and nearby; A ginko orchard part of the larger whole orchard, etc. (Japanese only; Retrieved 2010-11-30)
  46. ^ Template:Nihongo title TERRE issue No. 12 2007 -“environmental culture magazine”, by Cosmo Oil (Japanese Oil Refining Company) -their own English description of their TERRE magazine, quote: “We actively present our message based on the concept of “thinking about the environment through people, seeing people through the environment.” This enables us to consider the environment and to take action together with even more people.” (Japanese only; Retrieved 2010-11-30)
  47. ^ Elder Mr. Fukuoka meeting again with owner of Mahoroba Natural Foods store, with many details, as at 2008 Feb, including of Fukuoka Masanobu’s advanced age condition; the condition and running by his Son and his Wife of the Nature Farm, and so on. (Japanese only; Retrieved 2010-11-30)
  48. ^ Toyoda, Natsuko (Sept.–Oct., Nov.–Dec., 2008, Jan.–Feb 2009 (& Jan.–Feb. 2010)) “Farmer Philosopher Masanobu Fukuoka (1) Humans must Strive to Know the Unknown(2) What Does Natural Farming Mean?(3) Greening Deserts by Clay-Ball Seeding(& brief update)” Japan Spotlight (Promenade section) (Tokyo, Japan: Japan Economic Foundation) (161, 162 & 163 (& 169)) ISSN 1348-9216
  49. ^ Brian Ohkubo Covert’s recent 2010 visit and work in “Fukuoka nature farm” (now his son’s and family’s farm) – 1st message –2nd message, clarifying further -Fukuoka_farming Yahoo! group 2010

Citations

[icon] This section requires expansion(January 2011)
  1. ^ 1992–(Japanese) 1996 “The Ultimatum of God NatureThe One-Straw Revolution A Recapitulation” p. 203
  2. a b c d The 1988 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Public Service – “BIOGRAPHY of Masanobu Fukuoka”
  3. a b c d 1975–(Japanese) 1978 “The One-Straw Revolution” p. 118
  4. a b c Hui-Lian Xu (2001) “NATURE FARMING In Japan” Research Signpost
  5. ^ 1975–(Japanese) 1987 “The Natural Way Of Farming” p. 103
  6. a b c d e 1975–(Japanese) 1978 “The One-Straw Revolution” p. 33
  7. ^ 1975–(Japanese) 1987 “The Natural Way Of Farming” p. 106
  8. ^ 1975–(Japanese) 1987 “The Natural Way Of Farming” p. 112
  9. ^ 1975–(Japanese) 1987 “The Natural Way Of Farming” p. 114
  10. ^ 1975–(Japanese) 1987 “The Natural Way Of Farming” p. 204
  11. ^ 2001 わら一本の革命 総括編 —粘土団子の旅—(Japanese only – a title translation: “The One Straw Revolution Recapitulation -Journeying [around Earth] with clay seed balls-“)
  12. ^ 1992–(Japanese) 1996 “The Ultimatum of God NatureThe One-Straw Revolution A Recapitulation” p. 205
  13. a b “The 1988 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Public Service – CITATION for Masanobu Fukuoka
  14. ^ 1975–(Japanese) 1978 “The One-Straw Revolution” pp. xxi, 13, 60.

References

[icon] This section requires expansion(January 2011)
  • 1947 mu: kami no kakumei (無 神の革命?); First edition self-published in 1947 and again self-published in 1973 as mu I: kami no kakumei (無 I 神の革命?), 280pp., 21 cm; New publishing by Shunjūsha (春秋社?) in 1985 July ISBN 978-4-393-74111-5 and again in 2004 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74143-6; (Religion (volume) (宗教編 shūkyō hen?)).
    • 1964? “Mu 1-The God Revolution” translated by Alfred Birnbaum?. Japan. -see footnote 17 above for a link to a full translation of “mu” (any one English phrase, like ‘no thing’, doesn’t do it justice).
  • 1958 hyakushō yawa・「fu*」shizen nōhō (百姓夜話・「付」自然農法?); Self-published in 1958 Oct, 191 pp., 21 cm; – *fu (付?)-the buddhist reading of the character, see the Digital Dictionary of Buddhism.
    • (Title translation only:) A common-farmer evening-story・(to attach/deliver/hand down) nature farming. In Japanese only, not translated (yet).
  • 1972 mu: shizen nōhō (無 自然農法?) – first edition self-published in 1972. Publication issued by Shunjūsha (春秋社?) in 1985 Oct asmu III: shizen nōhō (無 III 自然農法?ISBN 978-4-393-74113-9 and again in 2004 Sept ISBN 978-4-393-74145-0; (Doing-practise (volume) (実践編 jissen hen?)).
    • (Title translation only:) mu 3: Nature Farming. In Japanese only, not translated (yet). -see footnote 17 above for a link to a full translation of “mu” (any one English phrase, like ‘no thing’, doesn’t do it justice).
  • 1972 midori no tetsugaku – shizen nōhō to riron to jissai (緑の哲学 自然農法と理論と実際?); Self-published, 359 pp. ISBN?
    • (Title translation only:) Green philosophy: Nature Farming theory and practice. In Japanese only, not translated (yet).
  • 1975 shizen nōhō – wara ippon no kakumei (自然農法 わら一本の革命?); Published by Hakujusha (柏樹社?) Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan ISBN?; New publishing by Shunjūsha (春秋社?) in 1983 May ISBN 978-4-393-74103-0 and again in 2004 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74141-2.
    • 1978 “The One-Straw Revolution” translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi?) and Larry Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn. Rodale Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New 2009 printing edition (see below).
    • 1984 “The One-Straw Revolution” translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi?) and Larry Korn. Indian printings. Indian (English) preface by Partap C. Aggarwal re–publisher from The Friends Rural Centre, Rasulia, Hoshangbad, Madhya Pradesh; Introduction by Larry Korn. Re-printed many times from 1992– Other India Press, Mapusa, Goa.ISBN 81-85569-31-2; His 1992– preface notes it has translations into many Indian-subcontinent languages of: Malayalam (1986) Marathi Gujarati Telugu Bengali Hindi.
    • 2009 “The One-Straw Revolution” translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi?) and Larry Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. 30 year anniversary new printing. New introduction by Frances Moore Lappé. Introduction by Larry Korn. Short 2 half–pages afterword from Masanobu Fukuoka 1986. New York Review Books USA. ISBN 978-1-59017-313-8.
  • 1975 shizen nōhō – midori no tetsugaku no riron to jissen (自然農法 緑の哲学の理論と実践?); Published by Jiji tsūshinsha (時事通信社?, Jiji Press Co.), Tōkyō, in 1975 Dec, 310pp. ISBN 978-4-7887-7626-5.
    • 1985 “The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green Philosophy” translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan Publications. Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-613-3.
  • 1984 shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?), 362 pp., in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7; An enlarged and revised edition, 458 pp., in 1993 April ISBN 978-4-393-74114-6; Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN 978-4-393-74146-7.
    • 1987 “The Road Back to Nature-Regaining the Paradise Lost” translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan Publications, first edition 1987 Aug. Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
  • 1985 mu II: mu no tetsugaku (無 II 無の哲学?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?) in 1985 July ISBN 978-4-393-74112-2 and again in 2004 Sept ISBN 978-4-393-74144-3; (Philosophy (volume) (哲学編 tetsugaku hen?)).
    • (Title translation only:) mu 2: mu philosophy; In Japanese only, not translated (yet). -see footnote 17 above for a link to a full translation of “mu” (any one English phrase, like ‘no thing’, doesn’t do it justice).
  • 1992 wara ippon no kakumei・sōkatsuhen「kami to shizen to hito no kakumei」 (わら一本の革命・総括編「神と自然と人の革命」?); Self-published by Shizenjuen (Shou Shin Sha) (自然樹園 (小心舎)?, One of Fukuoka Masanobu’s own self-publishing-publisher-names)in 1992 Dec, 230 pp., 26×26 cm ISBN 978-4-938743-01-7ISBN 4-938743-01-9.
    • 1996 “The Ultimatium [sic] of God Nature The One-Straw Revolution A Recapitulation” -He, himself, commissioned English-retranslation and printing in an extremely limited edition, less than 100 copies, no ISBN, printed by the author hence the publisher name is, quote: “S h o u S h i n S h a (小心舎)”.
  • 1997 “shizen” o ikiru (「自然」を生きる?), includes an interview with Kanamitsu Toshio (金光寿郎?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?) in 1997 Feb ISBN 978-4-393-74115-3 and again in 2004 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74147-4.
    • (Title translation attempt only:) A “Spontaneous/Natural/Nature” Life. In Japanese only, not translated (yet).
  • 2001 wara ippon no kakumei sōkatsuhen -nendo dango no tabi- (わら一本の革命 総括編 —粘土団子の旅—?); Self-published byShizenjuen (Shou Shin Sha) (自然樹園 (小心舎)?, One of his own self-publishing-publisher-names) in 2001 May, more than 950 captioned photographs from his travels all around Earth and his farm, many reproduced drawings and diagrams, and a full book of text pages also, 271 pp., A4 30x21cm, ISBN 978-4-938743-02-4ISBN 4-938743-02-7; Re-published in 2010 April by Shunjūsha (春秋社?)ISBN 978-4-393-74151-1.
    • (Title translation only:) The One Straw Revolution Recapitulation -Journeying [around Earth] with clay seed balls-. In Japanese only, not translated (yet).
  • 2009 iroha kakumei uta (いろは革命歌?, Iroha Revolutionary Verses), Fukuoka, Masanobu’s hand-written classical song-verses and drawings, in pen and ink, also with photographs, one card each for 47 syllables, arranged in the classical iroha-order of Japanese syllables; Includes a booklet with Fukuoka, Masanobu’s introduction and list of life accomplishments, together with the song booklet; In Japanese, bilingually with English-translations – created with many translators & contributors; 53 pages, size: 15×10 cm; His last creation and testament; Posthumously self-published in 2009 Feb 2 (by 自然樹園 (小心舎); 正信自然農法による地球緑化の会 (発売))ISBN 978-4-938743-03-1ISBN 4-938743-03-5.
  • “The 1988 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Public Service. [Award] CITATION for Masanobu Fukuoka. Ramon Magsaysay Award Presentation Ceremonies. 31 August 1988, Manila, Philippines”. “RESPONSE of Masanobu Fukuoka 31 August 1988”.“BIOGRAPHY of Masanobu Fukuoka”. The Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation website. (Retrieved 2010-12-15).
  • Society for the study of Fukuoka Masanobu Nature Farming, Kyoto University, Japan –reference page by Shōjaku Mutsumi (Shift-JIS Japanese text character encoding), with extensive collected details about Fukuoka, Masanobu’s life work, nature farming and writings (no translation to English from Japanese yet; nearly only Japanese; Retrieved 2010-11-30).
  • Toyoda, Natsuko (Sept.–Oct., Nov.–Dec., 2008, Jan.–Feb 2009 (& Jan.–Feb. 2010)) “Farmer Philosopher Masanobu Fukuoka (1) Humans must Strive to Know the Unknown(2) What Does Natural Farming Mean?(3) Greening Deserts by Clay-Ball Seeding(& brief update)” Japan Spotlight (Promenade section) (Tokyo, Japan: Japan Economic Foundation) (161, 162 & 163 (& 169)) ISSN 1348-9216
  • “The Fukuoka Farming Mailing List…created to discuss Masanobu Fukuoka’s revolutionary method of natural farming.” Yahoo! discussion group Members, some active contributors, include some of the world’s best practitioners, according to his documented assessments. “… Discussion of Fukuoka’s books, ongoing projects in Fukuoka Farming, creating and dispersing seed balls, and anything else to do with Masanobu Fukuoka, his life and work are all encouraged. This list was primarily created as a place for people interested in Fukuoka’s methods to network and share resources. Let’s help change the way people think about growing food.” —group description quotation. Useful documents in the files section of this group site. (Retrieved 2010-11-15)
  • Hui-Lian Xu (2001) “NATURE FARMING In Japan” Research Signpost, T. C. 37/661(2), Fort Post Office, Trivandrum – 695023, Kerala, India.
  • Hui-Lian Xu (2001) “Nature Farming: History, Principles and Perspectives” Journal of Crop Production, Volume 3, Issue 1, pages 1 – 10.

External links

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